5.1. General parameters¶
The following parameters describe general run information. See Input structure for how to use them in a configuration file or on the command line.
This parameter specifies the number of events to be generated.
The default event type is
StandardPerturbative, which will generate a hard event through exact matrix elements matched and/or merged with the paerton shower, eventually including hadronization, hadron decays, etc..
Alternatively there are two more specialised modes, namely:
MinimumBias, which generates minimum bias events through the SHRIMPS model implemented in Sherpa, see Minimum bias events
HadronDecay, which allows to simulate the decays of a specific hadron.
This parameter ties a config file to a specific Sherpa version, e.g.
SHERPA_VERSION: 2.2.0. If two parameters are given they are
interpreted as a range of Sherpa versions:
2.2.5] specifies that this config file can be used with any Sherpa
version between (and including) 2.2.0 and 2.2.5.
This parameter specifies the screen output level (verbosity) of the program. If you are looking for event file output options please refer to section Event output formats.
It can alternatively be set on the command line through option
-O, see Command Line Options. A different output level can be
specified for the event generation step through
or command line option
-o, see Command Line Options
The value can be any sum of the following:
0: Error messages (-> always displayed).
1: Event display.
2: Informational messages during the run.
4: Tracking messages (lots of output).
8: Debugging messages (even more output).
OUTPUT=3 would display information, events and
OUTPUT_PRECISION to set the default output
6). Note: this may be overriden in specific
For expert users: The output level can be overriden for individual functions, e.g. like this
FUNCTION_OUTPUT: "void SHERPA::Matrix_Element_Handler::BuildProcesses()": 8 ...
where the function signature is given by the value of
__PRETTY_FUNCTION__ in the function block. Another expert
EVT_OUTPUT_START, with which the first event
EVT_OUTPUT can be specified. This can be useful
to generate debugging output only for events affected by a some issue.
This parameter specifies the log file. If set, the standard output
from Sherpa is written to the specified file, but output from child
processes is not redirected. This option is particularly useful to
produce clean log files when running the code in MPI mode, see
MPI parallelization. A file name can alternatively be
specified on the command line through option
Command Line Options.
Sherpa uses different random-number generators. The default is the
Ran3 generator described in [PTVF07]. Alternatively, a
combination of George Marsaglias KISS and SWB [MZ91]
can be employed, see this
The integer-valued seeds of the generators are specified by
RANDOM_SEED: [A, .., D]. They can also be set individually
RANDOM_SEED1: A through
RANDOM_SEED4: D. The
Ran3 generator takes only one argument (in this case, you can simply
RANDOM_SEED: A). This value can also be set using the
command line option
-R, see Command Line Options.
EVENT_SEED_MODE can be used to enforce the same
seeds in different runs of the generator. When set to 1, existing
random seed files are read and the seed is set to the next available
value in the file before each event. When set to 2, seed files are
written to disk. These files are gzip compressed, if Sherpa was
compiled with option
--enable-gzip. When set to 3, Sherpa
uses an internal bookkeeping mechanism to advance to the next
predefined seed. No seed files are written out or read in.
Analysis routines can be switched on or off using the ANALYSIS
parameter. The default is no analysis. This parameter can also be
specified on the command line using option
Command Line Options.
The following analysis handlers are currently available
- Sherpa’s internal analysis handler.To use this option, the package must be configured with option
--enable-analysis.An output directory can be specified using ANALYSIS_OUTPUT.
Multiple options can also be specified, e.g.
Name of the directory for histogram files when using the internal
analysis and name of the Yoda file when using Rivet, see
ANALYSIS. The directory/file will be created w.r.t. the
working directory. The default value is
Analysis/. This parameter
can also be specified on the command line using option
see Command Line Options.
A run time limitation can be given in user CPU seconds through
TIMEOUT. This option is of some relevance when running
SHERPA on a batch system. Since in many cases jobs are just
terminated, this allows to interrupt a run, to store all relevant
information and to restart it without any loss. This is particularly
useful when carrying out long integrations. Alternatively, setting
TIMEOUT variable to -1, which is the default setting,
translates into having no run time limitation at all. The unit is
A memory limitation can be given to prevent Sherpa to crash the system
it is running on as it continues to build up matrix elements and loads
additional libraries at run time. Per default the maximum RAM of the
system is determined and set as the memory limit. This can be changed
RLIMIT_AS: where the size is given as
4 GB, or
10 %. When running with MPI parallelization it might be necessary to divide the total maximum by
the number of cores. This can be done by setting
Sherpa checks for memory leaks during integration and event
generation. If the allocated memory after start of integration or
event generation exceeds the parameter
MEMLEAK_WARNING_THRESHOLD, a warning is printed. Like
MEMLEAK_WARNING_THRESHOLD can be set
using units. The warning threshold defaults to
Whether or not to run Sherpa in batch mode. The default is
meaning Sherpa does not attempt to save runtime information when
catching a signal or an exception. On the contrary, if option
used, Sherpa will store potential integration information and analysis
results, once the run is terminated abnormally. All possible settings
Sherpa attempts to write out integration and analysis results when catching an exception.
Sherpa does not attempt to write out integration and analysis results when catching an exception.
Sherpa outputs the event counter continously, instead of overwriting the previous one (default when using LOG_FILE).
Sherpa increases the on-screen event counter in constant steps of 100 instead of an increase relative to the current event number. The interval length can be adjusted with
Sherpa prints the name of the hard process for the last event at each print out.
Sherpa prints the elapsed time and time left in seconds only.
The settings are additive such that multiple settings can be employed at the same time.
The targeted numerical accuracy can be specified through
NUM_ACCURACY, e.g. for comparing two numbers. This might
have to be reduced if gauge tests fail for numerical reasons. The
The path in which Sherpa will eventually store dynamically created C++
source code. If not specified otherwise, sets
value can also be set using the command line option
Command Line Options. Both settings can also be set using environment
The path in which Sherpa looks for dynamically linked libraries from previously created C++ source code, cf. SHERPA_CPP_PATH.
Sherpa provides the possibility to output events in various formats, e.g. the HepEVT common block structure or the HepMC format. The authors of Sherpa assume that the user is sufficiently acquainted with these formats when selecting them.
If the events are to be written to file, the parameter
EVENT_OUTPUT must be specified together with a file name. An
example would be
EVENT_OUTPUT: HepMC_GenEvent[MyFile], where
MyFile stands for the desired file base name. More than one output
can also be specified:
EVENT_OUTPUT: - HepMC_GenEvent[MyFile] - Root[MyFile]
The following formats are currently available:
Generates output in HepMC::IO_GenEvent format. The HepMC::GenEvent::m_weights weight vector stores the following items:
combined matrix element and PDF weight (missing only phase space weight information, thus directly suitable for evaluating the matrix element value of the given configuration),
event weight normalisation (in case of unweighted events event weights of ~ +/-1 can be obtained by (event weight)/(event weight normalisation)), and
number of trials. The total cross section of the simulated event sample can be computed as the sum of event weights divided by the sum of the number of trials. This value must agree with the total cross section quoted by Sherpa at the end of the event generation run, and it can serve as a cross-check on the consistency of the HepMC event file. Note that Sherpa conforms to the Les Houches 2013 suggestion (http://phystev.in2p3.fr/wiki/2013:groups:tools:hepmc) of indicating interaction types through the GenVertex type-flag. Multiple event weights can also be enabled with HepMC versions >=2.06, cf. On-the-fly event weight variations. The following additional customisations can be used
HEPMC_USE_NAMED_WEIGHTS: <true|false>Enable filling weights with an associated name. The nominal event weight has the key
NTrialsprovide additional information for each event as described above. Needs HepMC version >=2.06.
HEPMC_EXTENDED_WEIGHTS: <false|true>Write additional event weight information needed for a posteriori reweighting into the WeightContainer, cf. A posteriori scale and PDF variations using the HepMC GenEvent Output. Necessitates the use of
HEPMC_TREE_LIKE: <false|true>Force the event record to be stricly tree-like. Please note that this removes some information from the matrix-element-parton-shower interplay which would be otherwise stored.
Generates output in HepMC::IO_GenEvent format, however, only incoming beams and outgoing particles are stored. Intermediate and decayed particles are not listed. The event weights stored as the same as above, and
HEPMC_EXTENDED_WEIGHTScan be used to customise.
Generates output using HepMC3 library. The format of the output is set with
HEPMC3_IO_TYPE: <0|1|2|3|4>tag. The default value is 0 and corresponds to ASCII GenEvent. Other available options are 1: HepEvt 2: ROOT file with every event written as an object of class GenEvent. 3: ROOT file with GenEvent objects writen into TTree. Otherwise similar to
Generates output in Root format, which can be passed to Delphes for analyses. Input events are taken from the HepMC interface. Storage space can be reduced by up to 50% compared to gzip compressed HepMC. This output format is available only if Sherpa was configured and installed with options
Generates output in StdHEP format, which can be passed to PGS for analyses. This output format is available only if Sherpa was configured and installed with options
--enable-pgs=/path/to/pgs. Please refer to the PGS documentation for how to pass StdHEP event files on to PGS. If you are using the LHC olympics executeable, you may run
./olympics --stdhep events.lhe <other options>.
Generates output in HepEvt format.
Generates output in Les Houches Event File format. This output format is intended for output of matrix element configurations only. Since the format requires PDF information to be written out in the outdated PDFLIB/LHAGLUE enumeration format this is only available automatically if LHAPDF is used, the identification numbers otherwise have to be given explicitly via
LHEF_PDF_NUMBER_2if both beams carry different structure functions). This format currently outputs matrix element information only, no information about the large-Nc colour flow is given as the LHEF output format is not suited to communicate enough information for meaningful parton showering on top of multiparton final states.
Generates output in ROOT ntuple format for NLO event generation only. For details on the ntuple format, see A posteriori scale and PDF variations using the ROOT NTuple Output. This output option is available only if Sherpa was linked to ROOT during installation by using the configure option
--enable-root=/path/to/root. ROOT ntuples can be read back into Sherpa and analyzed using the option
EVENT_INPUT. This feature is described in Production of NTuples.
The output can be further customized using the following options:
Number of events per file (default: unlimited).
Directory where the files will be stored.
Steers the precision of all numbers written to file (default: 12).
For all output formats except ROOT and Delphes, events can be written
directly to gzipped files instead of plain text. The option
--enable-gzip must be given during installation to enable
Sherpa can compute alternative event weights on-the-fly, resulting in alternative weights for the generated event. An important example is the variation of QCD scales and input PDF. There are also on-the-fly variations for approximate electroweak corrections, this is discussed in its own section, Approximate Electroweak Corrections.
There are two ways to specify scale and PDF variations.
Either using the unified
and/or by using the specialised
VARIATIONS list allows to specify
correlated variations (i.e. varying both scales and PDFs at the same time),
but it is more verbose and therefore harder to remember.
Therefore, we suggest to use the more specialised variants
whenever uncorrelated variations are required.
They are evoked using the following syntax:
SCALE_VARIATIONS: - [<muF2-fac-1>, <muR2-fac-1>] - [<muF2-fac-2>, <muR2-fac-2>] - <mu2-fac-3> PDF_VARIATIONS: - <PDF-1> - <PDF-2> QCUT_VARIATIONS: - <qcut-fac-1> - <qcut-fac-2>
This example specifies a total of seven on-the-fly variations.
Scale factors in
SCALE_VARIATIONS can be given
as a list of two numbers, or as a single number.
When two numbers are given, they are applied to the factorisation and the renomalisation scale, respectively.
If only a single number is given, it is applied to both scales at the same time.
The factors for the renormalisation and factorisation scales
must be given in their quadratic form, i.e. a “4.0” in the settings means that the
(unsquared) scale is to be multiplied by a factor of 2.0.
PDF_VARIATIONS, any set present in any of the PDF library
interfaces loaded through
PDF_LIBRARY can be used. If no PDF set is given
it defaults to the nominal one. Specific PDF members can be specified by
appending the PDF set name with
It can be painful to write every variation explicitly, e.g. for 7-point scale
factor variations or if one want variations for all members of a PDF set.
Therefore an asterisk can be appended to some values, which results in an
expansion. For PDF sets, this means that the variation is repeated for each
member of that set. For scale factors,
4.0* is expanded to itself, unity,
and its inverse:
1.0/4.0, 1.0, 4.0. A special meaning is reserved for
specifying a single number
4.0* as a
SCALE_VARIATIONS list item,
which expands to a 7-point scale variation:
SCALE_VARIATION: - 4.0*
is therefore equivalent to
SCALE_VARIATIONS: - [0.25, 0.25] - [0.25, 1.00] - [1.00, 0.25] - [1.00, 1.00] - [4.00, 1.00] - [1.00, 4.00] - [4.00, 4.00]
Equivalently, one can even just write
because a single scalar on the right-hand side will automatically
be interpreted as the first item of a list when the setting
expects a list.
Such expansions may include trivial scale variations and the central
PDF set, resulting
in the specification of a completely trivial variation,
which would just repeat the nominal calculation.
Per default, these trivial variations are automically omitted during the
calculation, since the nominal calculation is anyway included in the Sherpa
output. If required (e.g. for debugging), this filtering
can be explicitly disabled using
We now discuss the alternative
The following snippet
specifies two on-the-fly variations,
where scales and PDFs are varied
VARIATIONS: - ScaleFactors: MuR2: <muR2-fac-1> MuF2: <muF2-fac-1> QCUT: <qcut-fac-1> PDF: <PDF-1> - ScaleFactors: MuR2: <muR2-fac-2> MuF2: <muF2-fac-2> QCUT: <qcut-fac-2> PDF: <PDF-2> ...
The key word
VARIATIONS takes a list of variations. Each variation is
specified by a set of scale factors, and a PDF choice (or AlphaS(MZ) choice,
Scale factors can be given for the renormalisation, factorisation and for the
merging scale. The corresponding keys are
The factors for the renormalisation and factorisation scales
must be given in their quadratic form, i.e. a
MUR2: 4.0 means that the
(unsquared) renormalisation scale is to be multiplied by a factor of 2.0.
All scale factors can be omitted
(they default to 1.0). Instead of
MuF2, one can also use the
Mu2. In this case, the given factor is applied to both the
renormalisation and the factorisation scale.
Instead of using
PDF: <PDF> (which consistently also varies the strong
coupling if the PDF has a different specification of it!), one can also specify
a pure AlphaS variation by giving its value at the Z mass scale:
<alphas(mz)-value>. This can be useful e.g. for leptonic productions,
and is currently exclusive to the
VARIATIONS can expand values using the star syntax:
VARIATIONS: - ScaleFactors: Mu2: 4.0*
is therefore equivalent to
VARIATIONS: - ScaleFactors: MuF2: 0.25 MuR2: 0.25 - ScaleFactors: MuF2: 1.0 MuR2: 0.25 - ScaleFactors: MuF2: 0.25 MuR2: 1.0 - ScaleFactors: MuF2: 1.0 MuR2: 1.0 - ScaleFactors: MuF2: 4.0 MuR2: 1.0 - ScaleFactors: MuF2: 1.0 MuR2: 4.0 - ScaleFactors: MuF2: 4.0 MuR2: 4.0
As another example, a complete variation using the PDF4LHC convention would read
VARIATIONS: - ScaleFactors: Mu2: 4.0* - PDF: CT10nlo* - PDF: MMHT2014nlo68cl* - PDF: NNPDF30_nlo_as_0118*
Please note, this syntax will create \(6+52+50+100=208\) additional weights for each event. Even though reweighting is used to reduce the amount of additional calculation as far as possible, this can still necessitate a considerable amount of additional CPU hours, in particular when parton-shower reweighting is enabled (see below).
The rest of this section applies to both the combined
and the individual
SCALE_VARIATIONS etc. syntaxes.
The total cross section for all variations along with the nominal cross section
are written to the standard output after the event generation has finalized.
Additionally, some event output (see Event output formats) and analysis methods
(see ANALYSIS) are able to process alternate event weights.
Currently, the supported event output methods are
HepMC_Short (when configured with HepMC version 2.06 or later),
HepMC3_GenEvent (when configured with HepMC version 3 or later).
The supported analysis methods are
The alternative event weight names follow the MC naming convention, i.e. they
MUR=<fac>__MUF=<fac>__LHAPDF=<id>. When using Sherpa’s
interface to Rivet 2, Rivet analyses, separate instances of
Rivet, one for each alternative event weight in addition to the
nominal one, are instantiated leading to one set of histograms each.
They are again named using the
For Rivet 3, the internal multi-weight handling capabilities are used instead,
such that there are no alternate histogram files, just one containing
histograms for all variations.
Extending the naming convention, for pure strong coupling variations, an additional
ASMZ=<val> is appended. Another set of tags is appended if shower scale
variations are enabled, then giving
The user must also be aware that, of course, the cross section of the event sample, changes when using an alternative event weight as compared to the nominal one. Any histogramming therefore has to account for this and recompute the total cross section as the sum of weights divided by the number of trials, cf. Cross section determination. For HepMC 3, Sherpa writes alternate cross sections directly to the GenCrossSection entry of the event record, such that no manual intervention is required (as long as the correct cross section variation is picked in downstream processing steps).
The on-the-fly reweighting works for all event generation modes
(weighted or (partially) unweighted) and all calculation types (LO,
LOPS, NLO, NLOPS, NNLO, NNLOPS, MEPS@LO, MEPS@NLO and MENLOPS).
By default, the reweighting of parton shower emissions is included in the variations.
It can be disabled explicitly,
CSS_REWEIGHT: false. This should work out of the box for all
types of variations. However, parton-shower reweighting (even though formally
exact), tends to be numerically less stable than the reweighting of the hard
process. If numerical issues are encountered, one can try to
CSS_REWEIGHT_SCALE_CUTOFF (default: 5, measured in GeV).
This disables shower variations for emissions at scales below the value.
An additional safeguard against rare spuriously large shower variation
weights is implemented as
CSS_MAX_REWEIGHT_FACTOR (default: 1e3).
Any variation weights accumulated during an event and larger than this factor
will be ignored and reset to 1.
ME-only variations are included along with the full variations in the
HepMC/Rivet output by default. They can be disabled, e.g. when not using
CSS_REWEIGHT: false, using
The extra weight names then include a “ME” as part of the keys to indicate that
only the ME part of the calculation has been varied, e.g.
MPI parallelization in Sherpa can be enabled using the configuration
--enable-mpi. Sherpa supports OpenMPI and MPICH2 . For detailed
instructions on how to run a parallel program, please refer to the
documentation of your local cluster resources or the many excellent
introductions on the internet. MPI parallelization is mainly intended
to speed up the integration process, as event generation can be
parallelized trivially by starting multiple instances of Sherpa with
different random seed, cf. RANDOM_SEED. However, both the
internal analysis module and the Root NTuple writeout can be used with
MPI. Note that these require substantial data transfer.
Please note that the process information contained in the
directory for both Amegic and Comix needs to be generated without MPI
parallelization first. Therefore, first run
$ Sherpa INIT_ONLY=1 <Sherpa.yaml>
and, in case of using Amegic, compile the libraries. Then start your parallized integration, e.g.
$ mpirun -n <n> Sherpa -e 0 <Sherpa.yaml>
After the integration has finished, you can submit individual jobs to generate event samples (with a different random seed for each job). Upon completion, the results can be merged.