5.2. Beam parameters¶
Mandatory settings to set up the colliding particle beams are
The initial beam particles specified through
BEAMS, given by their PDG particle number. For (anti)protons and (positrons) electrons, for example, these are given by \((-)2212\) or \((-)11\), respectively. The code for photons is 22. If you provide a single particle number, both beams will consist of that particle type. If the beams consist of different particles, a list of two values have to be provided.
The energies of both incoming beams are defined through
BEAM_ENERGIES, given in units of GeV. Again, single values apply to both beams, whereas a list of two values have to be given when the two beams do not have the same energy.
Examples would be
# LHC BEAMS: 2212 BEAM_ENERGIES: 7000 # HERA BEAMS: [-11, 2212] BEAM_ENERGIES: [27.5, 820]
More options related to beamstrahlung and intrinsic transverse momentum can be found in the following subsections.
If desired, you can also specify spectra for beamstrahlung through
BEAM_SPECTRA. The possible values are
The beam energy is unaltered and the beam particles remain unchanged. That is the default and corresponds to ordinary hadron-hadron or lepton-lepton collisions.
This can be used to describe the backscattering of a laser beam off initial leptons. The energy distribution of the emerging photon beams is modelled by the CompAZ parametrization, see [Zar03]. Note that this parametrization is valid only for the proposed TESLA photon collider, as various assumptions about the laser parameters and the initial lepton beam energy have been made. See details below.
This corresponds to a simple light backscattering off the initial lepton beam and produces initial-state photons with a corresponding energy spectrum. See details below.
This enables the equivalent photon approximation for colliding protons, see [AGH+08]. The resulting beam particles are photons that follow a dipole form factor parametrization, cf. [BGMS74]. The authors would like to thank T. Pierzchala for his help in implementing and testing the corresponding code. See details below.
A user defined spectrum is used to describe the energy spectrum of the assumed new beam particles. The name of the corresponding spectrum file needs to be given through the keywords
BEAM_SMAX parameters may be used to specify
the minimum/maximum fraction of cms energy squared after
Beamstrahlung. The reference value is the total centre of mass energy
squared of the collision, not the centre of mass energy after
The parameter can be specified using the internal interpreter, see
Interpreter, e.g. as
The energy distribution of the photon beams is modelled by the CompAZ
parametrisation, see [Zar03], with various assumptions
valid only for the proposed TESLA photon collider. The laser energies
can be set by
P_LASER sets their polarisations,
0.. Both settings can either be set to a single
value, applying to both beams, or to a list of two values, one for
each beam. The
LASER_MODE takes the values
1, defaulting to
LASER_NONLINEARITY can be set to
true or to
This corresponds to a simple light backscattering off the initial
lepton beam and produces initial-state photons with a corresponding
energy spectrum. It is a special case of the above Laser
Parameter of the EPA spectra of the two beams, defaults to
2.in units of GeV squared.
Infrared regulator to the EPA beam spectra. Given in GeV, the value must be between
1.for EPA approximation to hold. Defaults to
0., i.e. the spectrum has to be regulated by cuts on the observable, cf Selectors.
Form factor model to be used on the beams. The options are
1(homogeneously charged sphere,
2(gaussian shaped nucleus), and
3(homogeneously charged sphere, smoothed at low and high x). Applicable only to heavy ion beams. Defaults to
Value of alphaQED to be used in the EPA. Defaults to
EPA_Form_Factor can either be set to
single values that are then applied to both beams, or to a list of two
values, for the respective beams.
The intrinsic transverse momentum of the colliding particles can be
set by subsettings of the
INTRINSIC_KPERP: Parameter_1: <value_1> Parameter_2: <value_2> ...
The possible parameters and their defaults are
ENABLED (default: true)
Setting this to
falsedisables the intrinsic transverse momentum altogether.
SCHEME (default for protons: 0)
This parameter specifies the scheme to calculate the intrinsic transverse momentum of the beams in case of hadronic beams, such as protons.
MEAN (default: 1.1)
This parameter specifies the mean intrinsic transverse momentum in GeV for the beams in case of hadronic beams, such as protons.
If two values are provided, the intrinsic momenta means of the two beams are set to these two values, respectively.
SIGMA (default: 0.85)
This parameter specifies the width of the Gaussian distribution in GeV of the intrinsic transverse momenta for the beams in case of hadronic beams, such as protons.
If two values are provided, the intrinsic momenta widths of the two beams are set to these two values, respectively.
EXP (default: 0.55)
This parameter specifies the energy extrapolation exponent of the width of the Gaussian distribution of intrinsic transverse momentum for the beams in case of hadronic beams, such as protons.
If two values are provided, the exponents for each of the two beams are set to these two values, respectively.
EREF (default: 7000)
This parameter specifies the reference scale in GeV in the energy extrapolation of the width of the Gaussian distribution of intrinsic transverse momentum for the beams in case of hadronic beams, such as protons.
If two values are provided, the reference scales for each of the two beams are set to these two values, respectively.
If the option
BEAM_REMNANTS: false is specified, pure
parton-level events are simulated, i.e. no beam remnants are
generated. Accordingly, partons entering the hard scattering process
do not acquire primordial transverse momentum.